This type of foot ulcers constitute a break in the skin barrier where harmful bacteria can easily invade and multiply. It’s a complication of Diabetes Type 2. The cause is often peripheral neuropathy or peripheral vascular disease. The ulcers most commonly associated with Diabetes are neuropathic, arterial, and venous.
Neuropathic ulcers are caused by frequent friction on the parts of the foot where there is most weight. It often occurs on the sole and inner side of the great toe and 1st metatarsal head. This type of ulcer is often painless, encircled by a callous, and round in shape.
Ischemia, or decreased arterial blood flow to the feet, causes arterial ulcers. These are most serious and are often located on the heels, tips and between toes, sides or sole of the foot, lateral malleoli, and metatarsal heads.
Venous ulcers occur due to the lack of return of venous blood flow to the heart and accumulation of this blood in the lower legs. This makes the skin and the foot dry, flaky, itchy, dark in colour, and swollen. The site of venous ulcers is often on lower legs and inside of the ankles.
Footwear that does not fit is a frequent cause of foot ulcers. Things to look for in order to prevent ulcers: decreased circulation, lack of sensation, and previous wounds that took more than two weeks to heal.